Tetralogy of Fallots (TOF)

What is tetralogy of fallot (TOF)?

TOF is a cogenital heart defect that is characterized by four different abnormalities occurring together namely

  • Ventricular septal defect - a hole in the wall between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart
  • Misplacement of the origin of the aorta, tube that connects the heart with the lungs
  • Narrowing of the pulmonary artery, tube that connects the heart with the lungs, and
  • Enlargement of the right ventricle,


resulting in insufficiently oxygenated blood being pumped to the body causing cyanosis or bluish discoloration of the skin.

How is TOF repaired?

1.Shunt Operation

Surgery is required during infancy or early childhood. If severe symptoms develop in the first few months the baby may require early surgery called 'Shunt' operation.
A tiny piece of artificial tube made from Goretex is inserted between the Aorta, or a branch (usually one of the arm arteries), and one of the branch Pulmonary Arteries.

2.Corrective surgery

Corrective surgery is usually performed at about six months.
Correction involves closure of the VSD with a patch and enlargement of the narrow area of the right ventricle and pulmonary artery (pulmonary stenosis), often requiring a further patch.

Panel Of Specialist

Dr. Zainal Hamid

Dr. N. Arunachalam
MBBS, FRCS (Edin), AM (Mal)